The two primary sources of knowledge in Islam are the Holy Quran and Sunnah. The Holy Quran consists of the Arabic text revealed to Prophet Muhammad (peace be on him) over a period of 23 years. The Sunnah refers to Prophet’s sayings and deeds, also known as Ahadith. The Ahadith are collected in different books, mostly named after the scholar who collected it.
The Right to Life
The first and the foremost basic right is the right to live and respect human life. The Holy Quran lays down:
“Whosoever kills a human being without (any reason like) man slaughter, or corruption on earth, it is as though he had killed all mankind …” (5:32)
“Do not kill a soul which Allah has made sacred except through the due process of law …” (6:151)
The Right to Justice
This is a very important and valuable right which Islam has given to man as a human being. The Holy Quran has laid down: “Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to aggression” (5:2). “And do not let ill-will towards any folk incite you so that you swerve from dealing justly. Be just; that is nearest to heedfulness” (5:8).
Equality of Human Beings
This has been exemplified by the Prophet in one of his sayings thus:
“No Arab has any superiority over a non-Arab, nor does a non-Arab have any superiority over an Arab. Nor does a white man have any superiority over a black man, or the black man any superiority over the white man. You are all the children of Adam, and Adam was created from clay” (al-Bayhaqi and al-Bazzaz).
The Security of Life and Property
In the address which the Prophet delivered on the occasion of the Farewell Hajj, he said: “Your lives and properties are forbidden to one another till you meet your Lord on the Day of Resurrection.” God
Almighty has laid down in the Holy Quran: “Anyone who kills a believer deliberately will receive as his reward (a sentence) to live in Hell for ever. God will be angry with him and curse him, and prepare
dreadful torment for him” (4:93). The Prophet has also said about the dhimmis (the non-Muslim citizens of the Muslim State): “One who kills a man under covenant (i.e. a dhimmi) will not even smell the fragrance
of Paradise” (al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud).
The Protection of Honor
Holy Quran clearly lays down: (a) “You who believe, do not let one (set of) people make fun of another set. (b) Do not defame one another. (c) Do not insult by using nicknames. (d) And do not backbite or speak ill of one another” (49:11-12).
The Rights of the Non-Combatants:
Islam has first drawn a clear line of distinction between the combatants and the non-combatants of the enemy country. As far as the non-combatant population is concerned such as women, children, the old and the infirm, etc., the instructions of the Prophet are as follows: “Do not kill any old person, any child or any woman” (Abu Dawud). “Do not kill the monks in monasteries” or “Do not kill the people who are sitting in places of worship” (Musnad of Ibn Hanbal).
The Qur’an elevates kindness to parents (especially mothers) to a status second only to the worship of Allah.
Your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him and that you be kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of contempt nor repel them, but address them in terms of honor. (Qur’an 17:23)
And We have enjoined on every human being (to be good) to his/her parents: in travail upon travail did his/her mother bear him/her and in years twain was his/her weaning: (hear the command) “Show gratitude to me and to your parents: to Me is (your final) destiny.” (Qur’an 31:14)
Prophet Muhammad (Peace be on him) said,
Whosoever has a daughter and does not bury her alive, does not insult her, and does not favor his son over her, Allah will enter him into Paradise. (Ahmad)
Equality in Islam
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said:
“No Arab has any superiority over a non-Arab, nor does a non-Arab have any superiority over an Arab. Nor does a white man have any superiority over a black man, or the black man any superiority over the white man. You are all the children of Adam, and Adam was created from clay”
Justice in Islam
The Holy Quran says:
“Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to aggression” (5:2).
“And do not let ill-will towards any folk incite you so that you swerve from dealing justly. Be just; that is nearest to heedfulness” (5:8).
Repel Evil with Goodness
041.034 Nor can goodness and Evil be equal. Repel (Evil) with what is better: Then will he between whom and thee was hatred become as it were thy friend and intimate!
003.134 Those who spend (freely), whether in prosperity, or in adversity; who restrain anger, and pardon (all) men; for God loves those who do good.
Suicide is a Grave Sin